Flipping the Classroom: Various Aspects and Possible Outcomes

Contributed by:
Jonathan James
The distinctive idea of a flipped classroom is to replace time spent in class typically devoted to information transmission with more time being freed up for deepening understanding by requiring learners to engage in pre-class online learning activities.

Here we will discuss the various aspects and outcomes of a flipped classroom.

Philip Hedges
University of Westminster
2. Who, What, Where & Why
• A flipped learning experience was given to MA HRM students
on an economics-based core module in 2016/17
• Students had not been previously exposed to flipped learning
on the module & it was used on one part of the syllabus –
business ethics – during the 11 th week of a 12-week module
• AIM 1: To encourage students to engage more with this part
of the syllabus using higher-order application & evaluation
• AIM 2: Nudge students into selecting this part of the syllabus
for choice of essay question in the exam
• AIM 3: Utilise online learning technology
3. What is Flipped Learning?
• The distinctive idea of a flipped classroom is to
replace time spent in class typically devoted to
information transmission with more time being freed
up for deepening understanding by requiring learners
to engage in pre-class online learning activities
• Time in the classroom is then earmarked for going
beyond the basics of a concept or theory towards
developing a more nuanced & critical understanding
• For the average learner the successful use of flipping
the classroom can lead to deep learning
4. Typical “Unflipped” Practice
• Textbook chapters & other readings for weekly topics
indicated in advance of lecture/seminar face-to-face
• Students listen to lecture & are then asked to answer
questions during seminar
• Information transmission is mostly teacher-led
• Students either prepare fully, a little or not at all in
5. Flipped Version
• Before-class: Students watch Panopto instructor video
of PowerPoint slideshow which introduces the flipped
concept, business ethics & the utilitarian principle,
including 13 short-answer questions
• Before-class: Students watch Ford Pinto Dilemma
case study video to answer the 13 questions – this
video can be streamed from
• Students then come to class, listen to a shorter lecture
& attempt new seminar questions pitched to develop
6. Example from Slideshow
Dictionary Definition & Origins
• “Utilitarianism (ethics): the doctrine that right action consists in the
greatest good for the greatest number, that is, in maximising the
total benefit resulting, without regards to the distribution of benefits
and burdens.”
The Collins English Dictionary (1990)
• The utilitarian principle was formalised in England by Jeremy
Bentham (1748-1832) and later modified by John Stuart Mill (1806-
was a Mill was a
philosopher, philosopher,
legal scholar economist &
& social civil servant
7. Examples of Short-Answer Questions
Q1: What was the price of a Ford Pinto in 1970 in US dollars and
what would it be “today”?
Q2: What was the Pinto’s design problem?
Q3: What happens to both vehicles in the crash test when the
white car collides with the back of the black Pinto?
Q4: How much extra final cost per car would a consumer have to
pay for a redesigned Pinto in 1970?
Q5: How many redesigned Pintos would be sold eventually?
Q6: What would be the total monetary cost of redesigning the
Pinto in 1970?
8. New Seminar Questions
a) Having watched the Ford Pinto Dilemma video and
answered the 13 short-answer questions please explain
how Ford applied the utilitarian principle to justify its
decision not to redesign the Pinto model.
b) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Ford’s
approach to resolving this ethical dilemma.
c) Mercedes has recently decided to programme their
driverless cars to prioritise saving the Mercedes driver
given the scenario that the car could instead crash into
two pedestrians.
Evaluate whether Mercedes has behaved ethically.
9. Practical Aspects
• Make sure all your technology is working with the latest
software requirements
• You need time to plan, create & rehearse any instructor
slideshow recordings/videos & to record demos to test
your technologies
• You need silence to record
• Instructor slideshows & videos need to be as short as
possible - time yourself talking & speed up!
• You don’t have to do all the creative work – look for
supporting online materials such as Learning on
Screen’s BoB, YouTube & Lynda.com’s video tutorials 9
10. Practical Aspects
• Students may not engage in pre-class activities due to
time constraints – flipping works well when learners
are committed to full-time study & frequently attending
• Some students may face technical issues in using
software & streaming
• Advantage of recording instructor content is that it is
held on the university’s VLE which allows the
instructor to monitor statistics on who has viewed,
frequency & duration of viewings
• Be prepared to repeatedly publicise the flipping
process & learning materials based on VLE statistics
11. Practical Aspects
• Not everything needs to be flipped – choose topics
carefully & invest time in thinking about questions that
link the online materials to the learning outcomes
• Instructor recordings do not have to be polished &
students appreciate a touch of personality
• Have a back-up plan for students who come to class
without doing the pre-class activities
• Be prepared to repeatedly publicise the flipping
process & learning materials based on VLE statistics
12. Link Low, Medium & High-Stakes Assessments
• Low-stakes engagement motivated by answering
13 short-answer questions
individually when watching
online case study video
testing knowledge &
• Medium-stakes engagement motivated by higher-order
seminar questions for group
• High-stakes engagement motivated by choice of exam
essay option (1 from 5 topics)
13. Student Views on Flipping Before Exam
Summary of Results from the Flipped Classroom
Learner Evaluation Survey Semester 1
Facet of Flipped Learning Percentage of Learners
Pre-existing Familiarity 93% experienced flipped learning for the first time in this
Value 89% found the experience worthwhile
Learning Style 82% found the experience suited their learning style
Ownership of Learning 82% felt that they owned their learning
Clarity of Activities 100% said the activities were clearly defined
Structure of Activities 100% said the activities were well structured
Time to Complete Pre-Class 67% agreed there was enough time to do the pre-work
Time to Complete In-Class 86% agreed there was enough time to do the in-class
Activity work
Choice of Flipped Topic for 46% said they were more likely to choose the topic for
Exam the exam essay
14. Effect on Exam Essay Choice Sem 1
• Nearly a half of Semester 1 students chose the ethics essay
in the exam
15. Effect on Exam Essay Choice Sem 2
• More than a half of Semester 2 students chose the ethics
16. Effect on Essay Performance
• In semester 1 the ethics essay mean was for the first time
higher than the mean for all essay topics but Sem 2 students
achieved an ethics mean of just 90% of the all essays mean
17. Some Student Feedback Before Exam
S1 It was refreshing to have a different approach to teaching.
Has made the lesson on ethics more memorable.
S2 The flipped classroom was a novel and a new style of
learning for me. I found it engaging, meaningful, focussed and
very crisp. The message was communicated in a clear and concise
manner with a view to attention for detail. I enjoyed this style of
learning and found it be very positive.
S3 As a way to cement learning, in my opinion, this is a very
worthwhile method. However, as a part time student in full time
employment, I would struggle to devote sufficient time in this way
on a regular basis. As understanding and participation during the
lecture relies on 'pre-work' where time constraints do not allow for
this, especially in the case of part time students, I imagine the
method would be limiting.