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 History


 

  • The preparation of the revised syllabus of History requires more or less the same time period as before while preparing. One should lay emphasis put emphasis on the Socio - Economic Cultrual aspects.
  • While preparing, lay emphasis on the socio - economic- cultural aspects of the topics.
  • Archaeological perspective must be taken into consideration wherever required.
  • The revised syllabus of History is much in common with the many topics of General Studies. The new topics of History. for example : India's foreign policy, planning for development, Land reforms, Framing of the Democratic, Constitution etc. are already the part of General Studies for the main examination.
  • Certain topics do not find specific mention in the new syllabus (viz. The Vedic Age) but they are implicit and are to be studied.
  • The change in the nature of the course contents of History has made it more scoring. So there is no need to abandon it, rather to prepare it better.
  • This part, History of the period 750 AD - 1250 AD has become very important. Prepare this part well and one may expect a full-length question from this part.
  • The part First Phase of Independence (1947 - 64) is important and one may expect one full-length question from this part as well.
  • The parts 1, 2 and 4 of section A of the First Paper are important and one full-length question is expected from these parts.
  • In the World History Development of European History since the French Revolution and Post - 1945 development are more important. There is a need to concentrate on these two.
  • Contemplate on probable questions which might be put from the new topics of the syllabus and practise answer-writing. Get the help of a guide and get them assessed and evaluated.
  • Put special emphasis on the probable comment-type-question from the new topics added to the Second Paper (Modern India & World History).

Syllabus For History
Paper - I

1. Sources:

Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture

4. Megalithic Cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India.Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada) Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact

7. Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government;
Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

- Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
- The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
- “Indian Feudalism”
- Agrarian economy and urban settlements
- Trade and commerce
- Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
- Condition of women
- Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

- Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita,
Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
- Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of
Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
- Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the
newly developing languages, Kalhan’s
Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
- Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. The Thirteenth Century:

- Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind
Ghurian success
- Economic, social and cultural consequences
- Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
- Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

16. The Fourteenth Century:

- “The Khalji Revolution”
- Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
- Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
- Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

-- Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
- Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
- Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non- agricultural production, trade and commerce

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:

- Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
- The Vijayanagra Empire
– Lodis
- Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
- The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
- Portuguese Colonial enterprise
- Bhakti and Sufi Movements

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:

- Regional cultural specificities
- Literary traditions
- Provincial architecture
- Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar:

- Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
- Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
- Rajput policy
- Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
- Court patronage of art and technology

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

- Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
- The Empire and the Zamindars
- Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
- Nature of the Mughal State
- Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
- The Ahom Kingdom
- Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:

- Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
- Population, agricultural production, craft production
- Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution
- Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
- Condition of peasants, condition of women
- Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:

- Persian histories and other literature
- Hindi and other religious literature
- Mughal architecture
- Mughal painting
- Provincial architecture and painting
- Classical music
- Science and technology

24. The Eighteenth Century:

- Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
- Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
- The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
- Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
- The Maratha fiscal and financial system
- Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
- State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

PAPER - II

1. European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India:

Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj:

The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 - Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935

11. Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition;

Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in postcolonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau

(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies

(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics:

(i) European States System.

(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v) British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization:

(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society

(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan

(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

 

19. Nation-State System:

(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century

(ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy

(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

 

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i) South and South-East Asia

(ii) Latin America and South Africa

(iii) Australia

(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

 

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:

(i) 19th Century European revolutions

(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921

(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.

(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

 

22. World Wars:

(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications

(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences

(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

 

23. The World after World War II:

(i) Emergence of two power blocs

(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment

(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

 

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:

(i) Latin America-Bolivar

(ii) Arab World-Egypt

(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy

(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam

 

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

(i) Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

 

26. Unification of Europe:

(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community

(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii) European Union.

 

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991

(ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.

(iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

RECOMMENDED BOOK LIST FOR HISTORY

Ancient India:-

1) Early India: From Origin to AD 1300. by Romila Thapar.

2) Ancient India by D.N. Jha.

3) NCERT:- Ancient India.

4) IGNOU notes.

Medieval India:-

1)Volume I, II by Satish Chandra.

2) Volume III by J.L. Mehta.

3) NCERT :- Medieval India

Modern India:-

1) India's Struggle for Independence by Bipin Chandra.

2) Modern India by Grover and Grover.

3) India after Independence by Bipin Chandra.

4) NCERT :- Modern India.

World History

1) NCERT: Contemporary World.

2) World History: Jain and Mathur.

3) Mastering Modern World History: Norman Lowe

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